[21] Generating capacity from BP, op. cit. note 4; generation in 2012 from DOE, EIA, op. cit. note 4; number of homes calculated using average annual residential electricity consumption of 10,837 kWh from DOE, EIA, “Frequently Asked Questions: How Much Electricity Does an American Home Use?” at, updated 10 January 2014; Geysers generating capacity from Benjamin Matek and Karl Gawell, Report on the State of Geothermal Energy in California (Washington, DC: GEA, 2014), p. 4; plants under development from Benjamin Matek, 2014 Annual U.S. & Global Geothermal Power Production Report (Washington, DC: GEA, 2014), pp.12, 15–16.

[23] Matek, op. cit. note 21, pp. 4, 16; MidAmerican Renewables, “CalEnergy Supports California Legislature Recognition of May as Geothermal Month,” press release (Des Moines: 15 May 2014).

[24] Number of homes calculated using average annual residential electricity consumption of 10,837 kWh from DOE, EIA, op. cit. note 21; 42,000 megawatts calculated from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), “Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States,” fact sheet (Reston, VA: 2008), and from BP, op. cit. note 4; assumed 90 percent capacity factor based on REN21, Renewables 2014 Global Status Report (Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2014), p. 64.

[25] BP, op. cit. note 4; Alena Mae S. Flores, “Mindoro Geothermal Plant Gets 2 Investors,” Manila Standard Today, 19 October 2014; Juliana Glenn and Benjamin Matek, The Status of Geothermal Power in Emerging Economies (Washington, DC: GEA, October 2014), p. 11; DOE, EIA, op. cit. note 19.

[26] Active volcanoes from Ben Otto, “Indonesia Volcano Erupts 77 Times in 24 Hours,” Wall Street Journal, 5 January 2014; generating capacity from BP, op. cit. note 4; 2019 goal from “Geothermal Development: Indonesia to Tender 25 Projects in 2015,” Indonesia Investments, 21 November 2014; 330-megawatt project from Michael Taylor and Wilda Asmarini, “Indonesia Clears Path for Geothermal Energy as Power Needs Rise,” Reuters, 20 November 2014; 2025 goal from Harry Jacques, “Indonesia: the Slow Boil Geothermal Superpower,” Nikkei Asian Review, 30 June 2014.

[27] Production decline from BP, op. cit. note 4; net importer from DOE, EIA, “Indonesia,” fact sheet (Washington, DC: 5 March 2014); Tito Summa Siahaan, “Pertamina Turns to New Energy Sources to Become Global Player,” Jakarta Globe, 21 July 2012.

[42] Jefferson Tester et al., The Future of Geothermal Energy: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on the United States in the 21st Century (Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006), pp. 1–6; USGS, op. cit. note 24; global conventional potential from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012), p. 409.

[43] Doug Hollett, DOE, Geothermal Technologies Office, discussion with J. Matthew Roney, Earth Policy Institute, 6 October 2014; DOE, EERE, “About FORGE,” at, viewed 20 November 2014.

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